Tag archives: M&A

2020 merger review thresholds for Competition Act and Investment Canada Act

The threshold for certain pre-closing net benefit reviews under the Investment Canada Act (ICA) and the threshold for a pre-closing merger notification under the Competition Act have now both been released for 2020. The Commissioner of Competition announced on April 1 that the threshold would remain the same as in 2019.

Competition Act

Canada uses a two-part test for determining whether a pre-merger notification is necessary. The two-part test is based on the size of the parties and the size of the transaction. The transaction size component can be adjusted annually for inflation. Under the size of the parties test, … Continue Reading

Evaluating the Legal Risks of Data Assets in M&A

Data is an essential asset for many businesses, and one that is increasingly acquired through M&A transactions. Identifying and assessing the particular legal challenges of data assets is crucial for acquirers to mitigate the risks associated with these assets and unlock their full value. While issues will depend on the particulars of each transaction, the following is a high-level overview of significant considerations.

What rights in the data assets is the acquiring company receiving?

Evaluating a target company’s rights to their data assets is often more complex and uncertain than for more tangible assets. Such rights are often limited by … Continue Reading

M&A Activity: 2020 Outlook

J.P. Morgan’s “2020 Global M&A Outlook” (the Report) reviews what we can expect with regards to M&A activity this year. Some of the key takeaways from the Report include:

  • Anticipated Trends in International M&A: We can expect to see an increase in the global M&A market due to greater geopolitical certainty and financially competitive opportunities in regions such as Japan.
  • The Role of Private Equity Firms in the M&A Market: With record levels of capital to deploy, private equity firms will continue to be active players in the M&A market.
  • Shareholder Activism: Shareholder activists will continue to
Continue Reading

Acqui-hiring: What we know and what we need to know from a Canadian perspective

“Acqui-hire” transactions, which are particularly prevalent in the context of start-up technology-related M&A transactions in the U.S., focus on acquiring a company primarily to obtain its employees and their skills, in addition to other possible assets (see our earlier post on acqui-hires). In these type of transactions, it is thought that the greatest perceived value in the target lies in its employee base or segment(s) thereof. If there is also perceived value in the intellectual property (IP) or other assets of the target company, an acquiror might purchase those assets and possibly license them back. In some cases, … Continue Reading

Examining data analytics in M&A

The M&A world continues to evolve as transactions are becoming more diverse and complex. Timelines are getting shorter and acquirors have less time to assess their targets but more pressure to justify their acquisitions. Acquirors must simplify the process of acquiring a target, while simultaneously improving the accuracy of their predictions about the acquisition’s profitability. Could data analytics be one of the solutions?

More data is being created today than ever before. Generally, there are two kinds of data relevant to M&A transactions. The first is data created by companies spontaneously (e.g. social media chatter, CRM data, user … Continue Reading

How to ensure that emails of former employees do not fall through the cracks when purchasing a business

The importance of email in the workplace presents a variety of legal challenges when purchasing a business. Among those are concerns relating to emails and the email addresses of the seller’s employees who are no longer employed by the purchaser after closing.

First, there are confidentiality concerns in connection with former employees receiving information they should no longer have access to. Second, there are concerns that customers or other relevant individuals may be emailing former employees instead of the current employees of the purchaser. This can result in missed sales opportunities, gaps in customer service and a negative impact on … Continue Reading

Let’s see the money! Debt finance options in M&A

In many cases purchasers in an M&A deal will obtain debt financing to cover a portion of the purchase price. Fortunately, in Canada the options for acquisition financing are plentiful. Common ‘types’ include:

Senior Debt: the Bank Loan

Banks and other senior lenders can design a range of tailored solutions to purchasers’ funding needs. Broadly speaking, these loans can be classified as follows:

  • Fixed Term Loan or Revolver: The fixed term loan is credit for a fixed amount to be funded, and paid back, according to a pre-determined schedule. A revolving loan allows a borrower to drawdown, pay back and
Continue Reading

NAFTA 2.1: Bringing certainty to an uncertain time

If there is anything that Canadian dealmakers are all too familiar with in 2019, it’s the concept of uncertainty. Raging trade wars, geopolitical tensions, elections, and a forecasted economic downturn are all pervasive in everyday conversation. Despite this, deal flow has remained robust throughout the first three quarters of 2019, as summarized in a recent post. Fortunately, significant uncertainty in relation to trade with the U.S. and Mexico is hopefully coming to an end.

Representatives from Canada, the U.S. and Mexico met last week to sign what some are calling “NAFTA 2.1” but is formally known as the Canada-United … Continue Reading

Dealing with pending or threatened litigation in M&A

A significant consideration when considering an M&A target can be the impact that pending or threatened litigation has on the proposed transaction.

While some organizations may balk at the idea of acquiring a target that is (or is likely to be) the subject of a lawsuit, such companies are often available at significant discounts to purchasers that are able to understand and address the risks.

Each transaction will have its own unique considerations. However, an organization that is contemplating acquiring a target that is the subject of pending or threatened litigation should, among other items, address the following high-level considerations:… Continue Reading

Parties to M&A must be diligent about climate change

Climate change has become a high profile issue that is expected to have significant implications for M&A transactions going forward. As public awareness and scientific understanding of climate change continues to evolve, we are more informed about the climate change-related risks that businesses must grapple with and get ahead of. As a result, businesses need to be especially diligent in their assessment of a range of factors that may be impacted by the changing climate when completing M&A transactions. While the risks that should be considered will, of course, vary between transactions, the following is a list of climate-related factors … Continue Reading

Canadian M&A Q3 2019 Review: Canadian M&A activity remains strong despite a slight decline in transaction volume

Crosbie & Company’s “Crosbie & Company Canadian Mergers & Acquisitions Report for Q3 2019” (the Report) reviews the minor slowdown in Canadian M&A activity in Q3 2019 following a record-breaking second quarter. While deal activity declined slightly in Q3 (776 announced transactions compared to 886 in Q2), the Canadian M&A market remained robust, posting its eleventh straight quarter (dating back to Q1 2017) with at least 700 transactions.

Highlights of the Report

  • Slight decline in transaction volume: 776 transactions were announced during Q3 2019 compared to 886 in Q2 2019, representing a 12.4% decrease from the previous quarter.
  • Non-mega
Continue Reading

CANADA’S COMPETITION BUREAU IS KEEPING AN EYE ON SMALL M&A DEALS

The Competition Bureau (the “Bureau”) is required to review certain merger transactions that exceed various financial thresholds, based on the size of the business being acquired and the combined size of the buyer, the target business, and their affiliates. The notification thresholds under the Competition Act (the “Act”) are discussed in more detail here. The Bureau reviews transactions that exceed these thresholds (“notifiable transactions”) to assess the potential competitive effects of the deal prior to its completion, and if the Bureau concludes that a transaction is likely to substantially lessen or prevent competition, they may seek a remedy (such … Continue Reading

5G technology driving M&A activity in the telecommunications sector

The much anticipated rollout of fifth-generation wireless (“5G”) technology and changing consumer habits are expected to drive M&A transactions in the telecommunications sector over the next year. According to EY’s May 2019 Global Capital Confidence Barometer (the “EY Report”) 55% of telecommunications executives expect to actively pursue acquisitions in the next year, a significant increase from the long-term average of 45% for the telecommunications sector.

As consumption patterns for video and gaming continue to change telecommunications executives are anticipating the impact that future 5G speeds and capacity will have on adjacent industries like mobile streaming services … Continue Reading

AI as a solution for cybersecurity problems in M&A deals

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has immense potential as a solution for cybersecurity vulnerabilities in M&A deals. Generally, M&A deals generate value and as such, understanding vulnerabilities on the acquirer and target sides is important for completion of the transaction. With the common usage of networks and servers to store high volumes of data by corporations, vetting for cybersecurity attacks has become a priority in the M&A due diligence process. In a recent study, IBM reported that the global average cost of a data breach has risen 6.4 percent over a 12 month period to $3.86 million. The average … Continue Reading

Global payments industry: frantic M&A activity not slowing down

A payments industry that was stagnant and stale for decades has recently entered a transformational and disruptive period of innovation, with seemingly boundless growth ahead.

Payments players have engaged in record-setting levels of global mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity over the course of the past few years, but 2019 is poised to be yet another banner year for deal-making in the payments space. Rather than showing signs of plateau, this crescendo is set to continue beyond the immediate future.

The frenetic pace of M&A activity in the payments space recently has grown out of a confluence of factors. Private equity … Continue Reading

A-I Captain! Know the legal risks of buying an AI company… or go down with the ship

On February 21, 2019, Blackberry completed its acquisition of Cylance, a privately-held artificial intelligence (AI) and cybersecurity company. Acquisitions of AI companies like Cylance are becoming increasingly common as businesses seek to realize the opportunities in offering much-improved products or services to their customers. Canada, in particular, has become a hotspot for activity in the AI industry.

Acquiring an AI company is not always smooth sailing. There are common risks that buyers must be aware of prior to embarking on an acquisition.

Know where the data comes from

An AI derives its value from data sets used … Continue Reading

Managing information technology risk to improve M&A outcomes

An organization’s technology systems are an integral part of its business. Integrated into all aspects of its operations, the possible failure of these systems has been the top concern in Allianz Group’s survey of over 1,900 risk management experts for six straight years. High profile incidents such as the Visa service outage, where a systems error shut down all Visa transactions in the UK and Europe demonstrate that even large, sophisticated companies are at risk.

Given the considerable risk and consequences of technology errors, it is surprising that information technology (IT) systems are often an overlooked element in mergers … Continue Reading

Vendor take-backs: a useful tool for financing M&A transactions

A vendor take-back (VTB) (or “vendor financing”) is a potential supplementary method of financing an acquisition transaction. It is often documented by a vendor take back note or promissory note. A VTB may be used as a type of non-consideration in conjunction with other forms of financing in order to facilitate an acquisition.

In a VTB financing arrangement, the purchaser satisfies a portion of the purchase price through financing, typically by issuing a note to the vendor. Under this arrangement, the vendor effectively loans a portion of the purchase price to the purchaser. VTBs can be used by … Continue Reading

Q3 review: global M&A volume dropping, despite record highs

Thomson Reuters recently released a report on global mergers and acquisitions in the first nine months of 2018. According to the report, global M&A volume fell 32% in Q3 2018 compared to Q2 2018. The number of deals – 35,543 – in the first nine months of 2018 dropped 9% compared to the same period of 2017. Overall, however, global M&A activity has remained strong in 2018: in the first nine months of 2018, M&A activity reached a new record of nearly US$3.3 trillion. This represents a 37% increase compared to the same period of 2017.

Increase in mega deals

Continue Reading

Speed matters: four tactical approaches to speeding up divestitures and maximizing value

With pressure to increase shareholder value from low productivity assets, many companies are exploring the idea of divestures. Yet, a recent article by McKinsey & Company suggests that only 29 percent of divestitures achieve win-win scenarios, whereby both the parent company and divested business achieve excess total returns to shareholders (TRS) following the separation. What stands out about these companies? Speed appears to be the source of their success.

According to a study of major divestitures between 1992 and 2017 by McKinsey, separations completed within 12 months of announcement achieved higher excess TRS than those that took longer. A speedy … Continue Reading

Pension plan considerations in the M&A context

In any acquisition, whether for shares or assets, employee benefits and obligations must be taken into account. One of the potentially most onerous obligations includes the provision of pension benefits to employees – this makes it all the more important for companies contemplating acquisitions to consider potential employee pension plan implications.

In a share purchase context, the buyer will typically assume all liabilities of the target company, and if the target company has a pension plan in place, this will often be included. However, if there are significant pension fund deficits, this may be one reason an asset purchase agreement … Continue Reading

Increased M&A activity predicted as insurance industry evolves

The insurance industry is an evolving landscape. The emergence of new technologies and increased competition has created pressure to innovate while casting doubt on the viability of focusing on strategies emphasizing organic growth. These factors may drive an increase in M&A activity in the insurance industry, according to a report from KPMG International.

The report, which is based on interviews with insurance executives from around the world, concludes that the majority of insurance companies are seeking M&A opportunities in an effort to deploy their capital in pursuit of transformative growth. However, these companies will likely require significant support from M&A … Continue Reading

Shareholder responsibility over auditor tenure

Concerns about the term or length of auditor tenure have returned to relevance following the recent fall of industry giants, providing good reason for Canadian companies to reconsider their audit and governance practices.

In 2016, the European Union implemented mandatory rotations of audit firms for public companies, which was similarly considered, though rejected, in the United States. While Canada has not implemented mandatory auditor rotation, the annual appointment of auditors is an area in which shareholders have considerable power and responsibility, particularly following transactions that substantially change the nature and structure of a company.

Each year, business corporations legislation requires … Continue Reading

Will Canada soon be a global leader in the cannabis space?

Recently, the Cannabis Act was granted Royal Assent, resulting in the official passing of the legislation for legalizing cannabis in Canada. The Act is expected to be in force as of October 17, 2018.

The Canadian government’s decision to legalize recreational marijuana may significantly impact capital markets and M&A deals. The decision to legalize recreational marijuana at the federal level is unique to Canada, compared to other jurisdictions like the U.S. where it remains illegal federally and is currently regulated by states (such as Colorado, California and Washington).

While the state model in the U.S. has experienced some early success, … Continue Reading

LexBlog